英语的前缀-定义和例子

英语的前缀-定义和例子

英语的前缀-定义和例子

前缀是一到三个音节的词缀,加在基本词的开头,以轻微改变其含义。例如,在基础单词“可能”前添加前缀“im-”会创建一个新词“不可能”,意思是“不可能”。

前缀是英语中常见的一部分,理解它们可以极大地提高你的词汇量和阅读理解能力。在这个快速指南中,我们解释了你需要知道的关于前缀的一切,并给出了大量的英语前缀示例。但首先,让我们谈谈前缀(prefix)是什么意思。

What are prefixes?

前缀和后缀是词缀的一种,它们是加在词根上的词素,用来修饰词根的意思。前缀加在单词的开头,后缀加在单词的结尾。

在英语中,最常见的前缀和后缀通常是一个或两个音节长,尽管有些像hetero-和megalo-是三个音节长。

前缀总是具有相同的含义,无论它们连接到什么基础词。例如,前缀re-总是表示“再做一遍”:当用于reread时,它的意思是“再读一遍”;当它用于rebuild时,它的意思是“再次建造”。

When to use prefixes

前缀主要用于将短语缩短为一个单词。例如,不要说某人“比预期的完成得更多”,你可以简单地说他们“overachieving超额完成”,多亏了前缀over-。在写作中,前缀是简化文本并使其更有力的最佳方法之一。

前缀在学术学科中也很重要,特别是对学科进行分类。例如,生物学是研究生物的学科,基于前缀bio-,意思是“生命”,而地质学是研究岩石和其他地球矿物的学科,基于前缀geo-,意思是“与地球有关”。

只是要小心使用带有否定前缀的词,这样你就不会造成双重否定。有些前缀,比如a-、in-或un-,已经是否定的了。这意味着如果你说“not unnecessary”,两个否定词就互相抵消了,意思就是“necessary”。

Prefixes and hyphens

从语法的角度来看,使用前缀最令人困惑的部分是什么时候在前缀后面使用连字符。基本上,一些带前缀的单词使用连字符,而一些没有。为了帮助你理解什么时候在前缀中使用连字符,这里有一些基本规则:

Use a hyphen with the prefixes all-, ex– (former), and self–

前缀all-, ex-, 和 self- 使用连字符-.

an all-knowing deity

my ex-partner

a self-aware creature

但是,要小心使用ex-,因为它有两个不同的意思——“从…出来”和“过去”。只有当“ex-”的意思是“以前”或“过去”时,才使用连字符。

exterminator

ex-exterminator (a former exterminator)

还要注意前缀extra -与前缀ex-是不同的,尽管它们以相同的两个字母开头。前缀extra-不像前缀ex-那样需要连字符。

extraterrestrial

Use a hyphen for prefixes with a proper noun

如果你在专有名词前使用前缀,一定要用连字符。

a trans-Pacific flight

pro-Ukraine

唯一的例外是transatlantic,这是一个不遵循专有名词规则的独特单词。

Use a hyphen if adding the prefix spells a different word

一些有前缀的单词,尤其是re-,很容易与其他已经存在的单词混淆,这些单词恰好以相同的字母开头。如果为一个单词添加前缀会创建一个已经存在的单词,请使用连字符来消除歧义。

After she recovers from the flu, the gardener needs to re-cover the flower beds.

Use a hyphen to avoid putting the same vowels together

大多数情况下,如果前缀的最后一个字母和词根的第一个字母是同一个元音,就应该使用连字符。

re-enter

semi-independent

但是,请记住这条规则也有例外。特别是,一些带有o和e对前缀的单词不需要连字符。

cooperate

preexisting

当前缀添加到以不同元音开头的单词时,通常不使用连字符。

reappraise

hydroelectric

即使对英语专家来说,记住哪些前缀单词使用连字符也是令人困惑的。如果你不确定,可以使用语法检查器。

Examples of prefixes in English

a-

not, without

amoral, atheist, asexual

after-

following something

afterlife, aftermath, aftereffect

all-

including everything or completely

all-knowing, all-American, all-encompassing

ambi-

both

ambidextrous, ambiguous, ambivalence

anti-

against or opposing

anticlimactic, antibiotics, antiperspirant

astro-

relating to stars or outer space

astronomy, astrology, astronomical

auto-

by oneself

automobile, autobiography, automatic

back-

behind or reverse

backflip, background, backward

bi-

two

bicycle, bisexual, binary

bio-

life or relating to life

biology, biotechnology, biopsy

circum-

around

circumference, circumvent, circumstantial

co-, col-, com-, con-, cor-

together

co-pilot, colleague, correlation

contra-

against or opposing

contradiction, contraceptive, contrarian

counter-

opposition, often as a reaction

counterattack, counterbalance, counterpart

de-

down or away from

de-escalate, descend, devalue

dis-

negation or reversal

disapprove, dislike, dishonor

down-

moving from higher to lower

downgrade, download, downplay

ex-

former or in the past

ex-boyfriend, ex-wife, ex-president

ex-

out from

expatriate, exclude, export

extra-

outside of

extradite, extraterrestrial, extracurricular

fore-

before or at the front

forecast, forefront, forearm

geo-

relating to the earth

geology, geography, geofence

hetero-

different

heterosexual, heterogeneous, heteromorph

hind-

in the back or behind

hindsight, hindquarters, hinder

homo-

same

homosexual, homogeny, homophone

hydro-

relating to water

hydroelectric, hydrophobic, hydroplane

hyper-

excessive, above, or over

hyperactive, hyperbolic, hyperventilate

il-, im-, in-, ir-

negation or reversal

illegal, inanimate, irredeemable

in-

toward or within

include, insert, influence

inter-

among, between

international, internet, interact

intra-

on the inside, within

intramural, intravenous, intracellular

mal-

badly

malfunction, malnourished, malevolent

mega-, megalo-

very large

megalomaniac, megalodon, megafauna

micro-

very small

microscope, microaggression, microcosm

mid-

in the middle

midnight, midlife, midseason

mini-

small or less

minimum, minivan, miniature

mono-

one

monochrome, monogamous, monologue

multi-

more than one, many

multiple, multitask, multimillionaire

neo-

new iteration of something

neoclassical, neonatal, neoliberal

non-

not or negation

nonnegotiable, nonstop, nonsense

off-

not standard or away from

offbrand, offsides, offshore

omni-

encompassing all

omnipotent, omnibus, omnivore

on-

in the immediate vicinity

ongoing, onlooker, onset

out-

surpassing or going outside the normal

outperform, outmaneuver, outlier

over-

excessive or going above

overreact, overreach, overstep

pan-

including everything

pandemic, pansexual, panacea

para-

beside or beyond

parallel, paragraph, paranormal

peri-

around or about

perimeter, periscope, peripheral

photo-

relating to light

photography, photosynthesis, photon

poly-

many

polygon, polygamy, polytheism

post-

happening after

postpone, posthumously, postseason

pre-

happening before

prepare, predict, prefix

pro-

in support of

pro-union, pro-democracy, pro-form

pro-

moving forward or advancing

propulsion, progress, proceed

re-

doing something again

repeat, recycle, redo

self-

directed toward oneself

self-conscious, self-assured, self-checkout

semi-

partially, not completely

semiautonomous, semicircle, semiannual

sub-, sup-

below or from a lower position

submarine, suboptimal, subtropic

syn-, sym-

working together

synchronize, symmetry, syndicate

tele-

from a distance

telephone, television, telecommute

trans-

crossing or going beyond

transcontinental, transform, transgender

tri-

three

trident, triangle, triathlon

un-

negation or the absence of

unimportant, unrest, uneventful

under-

beneath or insufficient

undercover, underwear, underestimate

uni-

one

uniform, unite, unicellular

up-

upward or higher

upgrade, upwind, update

with-

moving away from or resisting

withdrawal, withhold, withstand

未经允许不得转载:学英语网 » 英语的前缀-定义和例子

赞 (0) 打赏

觉得文章有用就打赏一下文章作者

支付宝扫一扫打赏

微信扫一扫打赏